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Episode 9

Packaging and the Future of Semi Tech

  • Sam Salama
  • CEO, Hyperion
Aired: July 27, 2023

Sam Salama, CEO of Hyperion Technologies, joins John Cole for this newest episode of Circuit Talk: Funders and Founders. With a focus on advanced packaging, Hyperion Technologies is operating at the forefront of one of the most critical aspects of semiconductor technology. The CHIPS Act specifically calls out and allocates funds directly to advanced packaging, so what makes it such an essential component of America’s plan for success as a domestic industry? Listen to Sam and John discuss this and more here.

View Transcript


00:09 | John Cole

Welcome to Circuit Talk: Funders and Founders. I'm John Cole, senior manager on the semiconductor team at MITRE Engenuity. We are a nonprofit dedicated to solving problems for a safer world. Our semiconductor team is hard at work meeting the nation's challenges around semiconductor breakthrough technologies and the CHIPS Act. Circuit Talk: Funders and Founders is part of MITRE’s Circuit Talk podcast and video series, and it elevates the revolutionary disruptive work being done by semiconductor entrepreneurs and investors. This is an exciting time to be working with semiconductor startups. The nation is waking up to just how critical they are to our national and economic security. I'm joined today on Circuit Talk: Funders and Founders by Dr. Islam Salama the founder and CEO of Hyperion Technologies. Dr. Salama is an expert in advanced packaging, he earned his PhD from the University of Central Florida, where he studied Materials Engineering. After graduation, he spent 15 years at Intel working on packaging and substrate engineering, finishing his time there as vice president and general manager of manufacturing operations and supply chain. His name is on over 52 semiconductor related patents that range in subjects from packaging substrates, lasers and manufacturing. Dr. Salama left Intel to found Hyperion and 2020, a startup focused on advanced packaging. Welcome, Dr. Salama.


01:32 | Sam Salama

Good morning. Thank you, John for the opportunity. And looking forward to our conversation today.


01:37 | John Cole

Well, thank you for joining us. So, you've had this great career where you've sat on both sides of the fence here, you've worked for the larger company Intel. And now you're starting David, the startup, pretty good perspective of both. Maybe you could tell us a little bit more about how you got here, and sort of what compelled you to leave a really prestigious job at Intel to found Hyperion?


01:59 | Sam Salama

You know, that's a great question. I get this quite often, obviously. I over the course of my tenure in the semiconductor industry have been very fortunate to grow my career through a very diverse and interdisciplinary path, you know. Like so many of my colleague with a PhD degree, you graduate from school, you join the industry, you start your career as a technologist. I did that, I was lucky enough to move on past just being a technologist and learn more about technology development, high volume manufacturing, business operation and supply chain. And when you combine this with the global nature of our industry, and the deep partnership that you need to forge throughout the globe to be successful, the level of exposure that you get, and especially working at a very large and successful company like Intel, is tremendous. And I was very lucky to get coached and managed and developed throughout that the journey that I have. And all this really have helped me to build a comprehensive and multifaceted perspective about our industry. And it's through that exposure that I came to realize that our industry is going through an unprecedented set of challenges at multiple level, I will mention some, and what comes to my mind really is the confluence of three specific aspects. On the technology side, there is a clear technology inflection point that our industry is going through. This inflection is really leading to a tremendous shift from focusing on just focusing on scaling the integrated circuit at the device level, to adopting much more of a system level integration view, if you will. And that elevates the role of advanced packaging in this era of more than more if you will. On the geopolitical side, there is a redefinition of the global supply chain, there is a renewed focus on supply chain resiliency and robustness. And that's a big shift, compared to what we have been experiencing in this industry and so many others over the last two decades or so. And if you look at the business side, our industry is expanding at the fastest rate that observe it over history, the time is expected to double by the end of the decade. And that is a big driver for not only the business aspect of things, but also for the technology. So, the intersection of all these different aspects is really opening up multiple new opportunities for new entrants. You can bring new innovation to help propel the industry through that inflection point, you can come up with new business model to address the supply chain for agility and the cyclicality of the business. And you come up with new manufacturing paradigm that can help address affordability. So, I'm really super excited for the opportunity of being at this time in our industry and I'm looking forward to help appreciate that.


04:55 | John Cole

But that's a pretty comprehensive view of what's going on the industry, right. The end of Moore's Law so a search for new ways to keep on, you know, faster and better processors and the shifting supply chains and sort of you know, the incoming new technologies - agree it's an exciting time to really be here, right? How did you...well, Hyperion’s piece of this whole shifting landscape, what are you all attacking?


05:21 | Sam Salama

You know so we are building Hyperion to be an independent motion provider of system integration and advanced packaging, we are focusing on bringing solutions detailed 3D integrated circuits and solutions that will help enable the trend of chiplets integration at the packaging level, we are establishing the business model so that our manufacturing and product capability can be offered as a dual service for, or a service of dual use, for defense and commercial applications. And as we talked about like and as you rightly mentioned, was a very innovative models of scaling, they increase the level of complexity and microelectronics systems for tomorrow's application, there is really an increased reliance on, and I would say dependency, on advanced packaging. So, you see this packaging and heterogeneous integration is really evolving to the point where packages and substrates are becoming an integral part of the of the circuit of the device circuit itself. And that makes it both an enabler but also a limiter, right. So, to get that and help to continue the IC scaling at the system level, the industry is facing serious technical challenges, and we at Hyperion are working to explore different opportunities and innovations to help address this. I would also like to add that in addition to the technology challenges, historically, this part of our industry has not seen the needed level of traction or focus, particularly in the US. And as you know, John, this was for multiple reasons, not necessarily just the economical aspects of outsource manufacturing. So, that's also another challenge that sort of motivated us to enter into that business and help solve both the technical and the business side aspects of the problem.


07:19 | John Cole

So, what's changed? I want to understand that a little bit more, because I've heard folks talk about that packaging going to sort of the low-cost countries, what's changing in packaging right now? I'd say a lot is right. So, the Department of Commerce is putting money, part of the CHIPS Act is devoted to the advanced packaging sort of work, right? I think across the industry, we're seeing it, you know, an increased focus back on packaging. Why is this, why is right now sort of the pivotal point for packaging in general?


07:49 | Sam Salama

I think both of that is technological, because as we discussed, the trend of bringing chiplets integration into packaging, and making sure that the package is device performing the task of pre-aggregating these disparate chips into the right level of functionality needed by the device. So that is a technological aspect of why the role of packaging is important, and hence focusing on packaging becomes actually a necessity, right? Because, from that perspective, you could see it as an enabler. And, also the flip side of that is an immigrant, right, if you don't address that, then you wouldn't get to the performance needed, and called for by the roadmap. I think the other aspect of that is also business, right? You think about what we will have experienced over the last two to three years, right? We had a lot of chips shortage. And what comes to mind first, when you talk about that topic is okay, well, we have less chips? Well, that's correct, you have less chips, but if you really zoom in and have a much higher resolution of what not having a chip mean, or what causing the fact that that you have you have a chip shortage, you will find out that it's not necessarily just in the silicon chip, as across multiple segments. The true limiter for example, was lack of substrates, right. So, I think it is a global realization of number one, the importance of that particular sector of the industry. And then number two, the main points that currently exist in that particular portion of the industry and how significant of an effort that we need to address them.


09:30 | John Cole

Yeah, I think we agree like we learned just how brutal the supply chain is, across many industries, right. And a lot of them actually went right back to to semiconductors where the story kind of often stops when you read about it in the papers or or anywhere else, but you're right, that was a series of failures, everything from substrate to just over over demand and other sort of things kind of coming together. So what is, so, so, Hyperion you know off to the races right now, what is, the what is what is Dr. Salama’s sort of brand vision of the future look like for advanced packaging and how Hyperion kind of plays in that space? How do you see it changing the face of manufacturing?


10:08 | Sam Salama

So, I think we are solving or we're trying to solve multiple problems, right? If you look at the bigger picture, right? Especially on the technology side, everybody who's working in advanced packaging, including Hyperion, are really preoccupied with the question of how do we support this multiple chiplets and complex systems to do more, right? This will require us to add more functionality feed higher magnitudes of power for these disparate chips, and couldn't be more efficient. And as we mentioned, was experience we all went through with the pandemic and over the last couple of years. On the business side, we need to develop capability and set up capacities in the United States so that we can regain technology leadership, address this acute vulnerability and really rebalance this lopsidedness than the supply chain have seen. And if I just move on from that into how do we envision the future to look like, right, so because the technology demand is increasing on packaging, because the supply chain for agility have proven to be extremely detrimental to the process. I think what we are trying to work on and envision for the future is to produce a solution that can help our customers differentiate at the system level, and offer a packaging technology that is agnostic, really, to the sourcing of the chips and the desperate nature of the different nodes used to manufacture these different chips, but yet maintain that system level differentiation for our customers. And in order for us to do this, we have to have a technology solution that does not only scale, the IO density, for example, of the systems of tomorrow, but also address the thermal and the power problems that are limiting a lot of different applications when it comes to packaging.


12:06 | John Cole

Can you give us a short list of some of those problems that are limiting right now?


12:10 | Sam Salama

Yes. So for example, I will tell you that in order for the systems of tomorrow, to meet the requirements on memory near compute or memory in compute, you're trying to really bring the compute to the data, as opposed to bringing the data to compute and that paradigm shift is important, because if you don't do it, then you will continue to suffer from latency and all the problems. In order for you to be able to do that, you have to have the capability within the package itself from an IO density prospective, to support all that level of data processing. And that would require us to scale the features of the metallization. In the package scale, the layer counts in the packages skill, the ability to put a very fine pumpage on the substrates, and work around all the manufacturing issues associated with yield and warpage. And, and managing the output of the factory and all that. So, these are just minor examples of what is happening at the system level, we see requirements for packages to be able to support more than a kilowatt of power for applications such as AI, for example. That's a tremendous building on these substrates and packages. And a lot of the technology options that exist today fail to provide that level of power, for example. And with that comes the need for being able to efficiently cool that system. Right. And that has a very direct implication on the economics of running a data centers, for example, and the sustainability aspects of what we're trying to do.


13:54 | John Cole

Yeah, I have a bit of a tangent, but I feel like I've talked to more than a few entrepreneurs that either they're working on a fabless design, or maybe they're working on a new type of sensor or new material. But they all hold chiplets and sort of the packaging problem around that, whether it be standardization and are just sort of making that available as their gating opportunity or they're opening opportunity to be able to get their product to market in the sense that it's installed as part of their problem to be able to bring their technology and other people's systems or to make the combination of systems that they sort of need on a chip level. So, this has got ramifications more so than just enabling people to do more I think of what they're already doing right but also to be able to do new things and new combinations of things that we haven't even kind of thought of yet.


14:50 | Sam Salama

Absolutely. And I think, I see this was the level of innovations for example that we're bringing was was the materials and the process that were introduced. seem to our industry, we talk to customers, we talk to entrepreneurs and other small companies, and they tell us wow, if you're able to give me that level of thermal cooling, on my device, here is what I'm going to be able to do. And here's how I'm going to increase the overall efficiency of the system, even to the cloud service provider, customers of mine and stuff like that. So it's absolutely correct this innovations at the material and the process level that goes hand in hand, open the doors for new architectures, these new architectures open the doors for making today's application more efficient, but also opening the door for future capabilities that does not exist today.


15:40 | John Cole

What an exciting place for Hyperion to be not only sort of the enabler of the bigger guys to be able to go further faster, but also for the entrepreneurs and the smaller folks in this ecosystem to be able to come up with new devices and new, you know, whole new paradigms of computing, if you will. So that's really exciting.


15:59 | Sam Salama

It is very exciting, John, and you know, it's very exciting to be able to talk to other entrepreneurs understand that their problem and use that to inform our trajectory of what we're trying to do with innovation we're bringing, it's such an exciting time.


16:14 | John Cole

Fantastic. Well, so packaging, I know, and isn't necessarily the only and chiplets aren't really the only dimension that you're sort of going after. At MITRE Engenuity, and I've seen you talk about this before, too, we see more and more industry partners talking about environmental sustainability. And maybe you can tell us a little bit more about what's going on there and how you're thinking about that.


16:39 | Sam Salama

Yeah, no, that's a very important point. Because you know, sustainability has multiple different facets, if you will. But it's specific to our industry, specifically for someone like us who is trying to do not only a design, but also design and manufacturing and offer a turnkey solutions, then you really need to worry about this. And I will just give you a couple of examples. I mean, obviously, water consumptions is a big deal for semiconductor. And especially in Arizona, right. So we, we have to be very conscientious about that. And really sort of like come up with means to address this problem. And in my opinion, and based on the experience, with the work we're trying to do with Hyperion and our local municipalities here, I think the most effective way out of this is through innovation, right? So come up coming up with new innovations that allows you to significantly reduce your water consumption and coming up with innovations that allows you to adopt things such as zero liquid discharge, or technologies that allows you to charge the factory and then continue to use that through multiple steps of refinement and waste treatments and stuff like that. We feel like this is a paramount for all of us to be able not only to bring manufacturing back to the US, but do something that we all feel good about, and have a direct impact to the rest of the humanity at large.


18:04 | John Cole

That's a really good point, though, too. Because as there's a reshoring, if you will, as which is part of the grand vision of everybody involved here, these companies are going to face more and more stringent environmental regulation here, maybe in the US than they than they do in other places that they operate. So, it seems like a really important one to get in front of.


18:24 | Sam Salama

No, absolutely. And I think you know, the intention for us and so many other companies that I see in my interaction on a day to day is not just to be able to do this as a ‘me too’, right? We're trying to do this in a way that sort of like sets an example. And truly, in a practical manner, help ideate, that we are not just trying to solve an acute supply chain problem. But we're trying to set that example and help the US gain its technology leadership.


18:54 | John Cole

That's fantastic. Serving the customer and serving the environment and all the above all at once. That's, that's really awesome. Well, I know that I think we met when I sort of introed you mentioned, you get spent first, first 15 years of your career, maybe working for the big guy. And now you're sort of in startup mode. And mentioned also the this gives you this sort of broader perspective on the ecosystem and many other startups that are in this space right now. Then say if you just come out of the lab, or maybe just come out of the university, you kind of bring that some institutional and experiential knowledge with you. But semiconductor space is pretty unique because eventually you'll almost certainly need to work with a large IDM or foundry or some somewhat larger ecosystem. When you see, if you sort of roll back your career a little bit, what most startups get wrong about that relationship or miss about their potential larger partner that's necessary?


19:51 | Sam Salama

You know, that's a very important question, John. And then I reflect on this a lot, right? Because we knew like anything else in life when you see through two different perspectives you can tell about just reflect and learn of the difference and have opinions around one specific topic. And, you know, we all know that the semiconductor industry is very capital intensive, right? And the ecosystems that involves both the customers and the suppliers is very entangled. Right? But historically, if you look at this interplay between startups and big companies, right, whether the big companies and IDM, or fabless big company or cloud service provider, or what have you, that interplay between startups and big entities have proven to be extremely crucial, and a very important catalyst for innovations in our industry. Right? If you look at it from the perspective of the startup, startups are facing a lot of challenge around resources on time, right. And, as a result of that, and rightfully so, right, because time is very limited resources are very limited. You tend to sort of like push, your technology solutions, toward your end customers in a very myopic way, if you will, right. You're focusing on having this technology proven to work, getting it adopted selling it, or having it license or what have you. And in the process...


21:20 | John Cole

Limited time to live unless you can do that.


21:24 | Sam Salama

Exactly limited time to live unless you can do that. But also, you have limited resources to help you do that, right. So it sort of becomes a very laser focused mission. And that is needed, right. But the flip side of that it comes at the expense of in certain cases, the startup will fail to recognize the bigger picture from the IDN perspective, right, you need to understand how your technology interacts downstream and upstream. What is the opportunity cost that the adopting IDM, or the adopting fabulous company would have to go through the calculus off before they adopt your technology. And in most cases, your technology could be a stellar and it could provide a very important solutions. But in the grand scheme of things, or at the system level, it does not really offer what you think it will offer. So, taking the time from the startup perspective, to understand this and forging the right relationships that would allow the IDM to sort of like integrate this successfully, with their entire system is very important.


22:31 | John Cole

So is it just a startups often need a more holistic understanding of how the IDM operates? And what its, what its maybe larger interests are? Or is it they don't understand how the individuals within it operate and how they're incentivized Where do you see that disconnect happening?


22:51 | Sam Salama

I think actually, it's all of the above.


22:55 | John Cole

Or misunderstanding I guess


22:56 | Sam Salama

I wouldn't, I mean, a lot of the entrepreneur actually have a very deep understanding of their piece, otherwise, they know that they won't be very successful. But I think it's taking the time or recognizing that you would need the time, which again, is one of your most precious commodity, as a startup, to be invested in understanding the bigger picture and going a little bit more wider in the scope of what you're offering and your conversation. That will entail actually, a lot of things it will entail, like you said, getting the right contact within the IDM. So, that you're not only focusing on the immediate team that is impacted, but what your offer, but the grand team that is working at offering the overall solutions, I would also think that on the large company side, there might be room for things to help the case, right. So, while in a large company resources or time might not be as pressing as in a startup case. But obviously, the opportunity cost is very high. The stakes are very high. And this is a very capital intensive industry. So mistakes are extremely costly. But because of all this, there tended to be a very limited data sharing or a very limited coaching aspects that comes from the large companies to the small ones. And while IP protections and making sure that you protect your competitiveness, and competitive edge, if you will, are understandable reasons, I think there are rooms for that to be addressed. And for more coaching and help to be offered toward the startups that can help address the case.


24:40 | John Cole

Increased knowledge sharing between the two and maybe even some level of pre integration, would that smooth things over or speed things up maybe for everybody?


24:50 | Sam Salama

Absolutely. And I think it both sport is looking at this from more of a partnership perspective rather than a transactional interaction, if you will, will help significantly, I also often find that when both are aligned to an industry wide problem, rather than a very specific subset of that, that belongs to the IDM. That sort of like helps ease the tension a little bit and allow for a much more open conversation. And once you have the open conversation, you will get a wider and understanding you will get the coaching aspect of it. And you will get both sides to accommodate the limitations of each other.


25:31 | John Cole

Yeah, that is a sweet spot. That sounds real nice. Hyperion, when you think about that, and think about your like your, your particular startups direction and alignment with the bigger partners that you have to work with here. How do you do that? Are you able to do that, based on, you know, years of industry relationships? Or are you know, have you thought about how you sort of strategically positioned Hyperion to naturally align with that?


25:58 | Sam Salama

You know, it's a very interesting question, because I spent a lot of time thinking about this. And I actually tended to think about this, every time I'm having an interaction with a potential customers or somebody that I could view as a potential customer, right. And the way I try to balance this in my head, and in my, throughout my approach is, if I just rely on my previous knowledge, or my previous position, or my contacts that they established, that tended to maybe help me get the meeting, and I will be very honest with you. But if I continue with that, I think it sort of narrows my perspective and narrows my aperture a little bit, I think I'd like to sort of like, spout, a young mentality, right, and be able to approach the problem differently, so that I can entertain the knowledge coming through to me and help use that to help inform our direction, the industry is moving very fast, the application sets are changing the capability requirements are changing. And even if I have a long experience in a specific IDM, setting, you know, big companies tend to have a very specific way of doing things. And that's why they are successful, right. But as a startup, you cannot afford to just spouse to one way of doing so you have to be diverse in your in your approach. And you have to have the elasticity or the flexibility in your mind to be open so that you're able to formulate what might be of interest to people because customers have a very wide array of requirements, right. And then being able to do that there is obviously a transferable skills that I that I learned and I use, but being open minded, and being able to adapt to the new ways of doing things on a constant basis is very important.


27:58 | John Cole

The interesting position to me, because when you talk to, pause for a moment, think about like, you know, Silicon Valley in the mantra is almost disrupt, in fact, it's like move fast and break things. But if you're a startup, sort of going after another software startup, your best hope is to sort of just disrupt them. And it's often a brash in, you know, oppositional sort of positioning that you take, right, there seems like there's no room for that in the semiconductor field, because you kind of you have to almost have to cooperate because the capital requirements are so large on one hand, but on the other hand, if you're not doing something 10x better than the solution, you're sort of replacing right now, then you don't provide, there’s not a lot of motivation for the incumbents or the existing companies to really come work with you. Because their, their capital requirements and their capital investments are so large, right?


28:54 | Sam Salama

Yeah, I largely agree with you, John, on this point, there is a very distinctive difference in the approach and the sitting between doing a software startup versus hardware.


29:05 | John Cole

Yeah, I didn’t even touch or come close to all the differences.


29:09 | Sam Salama

It's absolutely I agree with you. And you know, I strongly believe that in the hardware space, especially in the hardware associated with semiconductor and the integrated circuit and the packaging, there is a tremendous opportunity for new commerce to partner towards the success as opposed to disrupt toward the success right capital intensity reasons or very obvious like you rightfully mentioned, the barrier for capital intensity is extremely high. And in order for an entity, regardless of what it is, large or small partnership has proven over the years to be a very effective way to address this particular aspect of calculators. Another thing is is time to learning right or time to data, time to data is money, right? So if you're trying to reinvent the wheel, even if you have the money, you don't have a set. So being able to partner so that you can integrate learning from multiple aspects, and learn from other people's mistakes...


30:13 | John Cole

Be specific in hardware, when you're talking about the learning, it's getting a prototype made testing it, and then starting over again, and that sort of learning cycle that we hear a lot about, is that right? Or...


30:24 | Sam Salama

Yes, yes, people refer to this as the technology development cycle. technology development cycle is very long. And as you know, our industry is very cyclic, right. So even if you have the resources, but you can't buy cut yourself stuck between a very long development cycle and a cyclicality of a business demand, you might find yourself in a very bad spot. So being able to integrate different learning from partnerships, and synchronize that with the cyclicality of the business is extremely important.


30:56 | John Cole

Intel's out in Ohio, the very visible cutting ground microns expanding in Virginia, and TSMC is in Arizona, just thinking of the last few months, right. But beyond that, what needs to happen for us to reshore this not, you know, maybe maybe that we're not recognizing right now, or for America decided to take a leadership position?


31:17 | Sam Salama

Right? So actually, that's a good point, I would say there is that on old reshoring falsely give you the impression that it's something that you have decided to let go for outsource manufacturing reasons. And now you know exactly how we do it. And you're just bringing it back, then it's just the hard work. But the reality of the matter is that it's not just that it's that it's part of it is relearning, part of it of actually learning new things, in order for you to be to be able to do it, because you have never done it. So it's not necessarily reshoring. And with that comes a lot of prerequisites.


31:57 | John Cole

You're absolutely right, like after the ground is sort of cut on that, you need a couple of things, right. There's the skilled workforce, which I think is kind of what your part of what you're referring to there, right, the way of the way of doing things, but you need people that know the way of doing things to implement it. And that's like this full stack sort of workforce, that's engineering and researchers maybe at the top and technicians, you know, further down and all sorts of support people above and below and all around, right?



No, absolutely. Our industry, as you know, is capital intensive, which means that to bring something here, you need a lot of resources. And investment is a big part of that resources. It's also requires a very well-trained workforce, right? It does not take few days to have this workforce available. It takes years. And you have to start all the way from sometimes in elementary schools and try to attract the people to love certain things, in order for them to agree to dedicate certain portion of their time to learn it, and then make a career out of it. Yeah, so time is required, even if the resources are there. And I think the multiplicity of a challenge that's there comfortable for each other, right, we don't have the right level of trained workforce, that is enough for the magnitude of domestic manufacturing and technology leadership that we're trying to achieve. I think money is available, in my opinion, at the macro level, right. But at the specific micro level, in order for you to have a specific outcome after so many years, you need certain number of very large layers with certain level of resources. You also need certain number of startups whose constant rate of innovations to feed that machine in order for you to achieve. And that requires patience. So, it's good capital, patient capital, right, and coaching and guidance along the way.


34:04 | John Cole

Yeah, my, my understanding that, you know, a lot of folks opinion is that economically make the case to bring the industry or to shift a lot of it back to the US really requires that like some sort of leapfrog innovation and leapfrog invention, they can only not only but most likely to come from startups so that we're not sort of directly competing with the technology that's out there. We're starting afresh, with a with a leg up on the sort of the technical innovation, I guess.


34:41 | Sam Salama

Yeah, that's actually a very admirable view. And I think it has a lot to do with what does it mean? I think, to the point that you and I have discussed earlier in the in the interview, I think we both agreed that disruption is not necessarily the right way all the time, right, but forging the right level of partnership. And that could be an example where you have startups that are focusing on the high risk, high reward aspect of the innovation cycle. But then the big companies are really good at having the introduction of new innovations into high volume manufacturing and bringing it to live in you, right? So complimentary and a partnership approach. And that would help us sort of like leapfrog or close the gap that if we don't, it will just keep widening it.


35:30 | John Cole

Dr. Salama thank you so much for taking the time to share so much about Hyperion and some of the awesome stuff you're doing within the ecosystem. And it sounds like once you, once you achieve that vision, it's really going to change things for everybody. So that's really exciting. We hope to have you back again soon and keep having you back and hear about your progress.o


35:48 | Sam Salama

Thank you so much, John. I really appreciate the opportunity and I really appreciate all what you guys do on wider. Thank you.